definition of AIDS
canada goose uk shop Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Today is seen in both homosexual and heterosexual men and women. AIDS is canada goose trillium parka uk the advanced form of infection with HIV virus. This virus may not cause recognizable symptoms for a long period https://www.amigosdecontreras.es after the initial exposure (latent period). As of early 2009, no vaccine was available to prevent HIV infection. Until such a vaccine is developed, all forms of HIV/AIDS therapy are focused on improving the quality and length of life for people who are infected by slowing or halting the replication of the virus canada goose uk distributor and treating or preventing infections and cancers that often develop in people with AIDS. canada goose uk shop
AIDS is one of the most devastating worldwide public health problems in recent history. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in 2006 944,000 people in the United States had been diagnosed with AIDS since the disease was identified in 1981. In 2006, an additional 1 1.2 million Americans were diagnosed as infected with HIV but not yet showing symptoms (HIV positive). However, in early 2009, the CDC issued a statement that they now thought that earlier the HIV positive estimates were too low, as many more people than were originally estimated are living with unreported or undiagnosed HIV infection.
buy canada goose jacket According to the August 2008 report issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), as of 2007, approximately 33 million people worldwide are HIV positive. Over half of the 33 million are women and this statistic has remained stable for several years. The risk factors for HIV transmission vary according to the method of transmission. buy canada goose jacket
canada goose clearance Sexual contact. People at greatest risk are those who do not practice safer sex by always using a condom, those who have multiple sexual partners, those who participate in anal intercourse, and those who have sex with a partner who has HIV infection and/or other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In the United States and Europe, most cases of sexually transmitted HIV infection result from homosexual contact, whereas in Africa, the disease is spread primarily through sexual intercourse among heterosexuals. Most people with AIDS in the United States are between 25 and 44 years of age. canada goose clearance
canada goose coats on sale Transmission in pregnancy. High risk mothers include women sexually active with bisexual men, intravenous drug users, and women living in neighborhoods with a high rate of HIV infection among heterosexuals. canada goose black friday uk The chances of transmitting the disease to the child are higher in women in advanced stages of the disease. Breast feeding increases the risk of HIV transmission as HIV passes into breast milk. The rate of pediatric HIV transmission in the United States had decreased substantially because of HIV testing and improved drug treatment for infected mothers, so fewer than 1% of AIDS cases now occur in children under age 15. In the developing world, mother to infant transmission remains epidemic. In 2006, AIDS was the single most common cause of death in children under age 5 in South Africa, while worldwide children account for about 10% of all AIDS cases. canada goose coats on sale
Exposure to contaminated blood. Risk of HIV transmission among intravenous drug users increases canada goose black friday usa with the frequency and duration of intravenous use, frequency of needle sharing, number of people sharing a needle, canada goose outlet canada and the rate of HIV infection in the local population. In 2006, about 19% of men with AIDS and 25% of women with AIDS contracted the disease through sharing needles during intravenous drug injection. With the introduction of new blood product screening in the mid 1980s, HIV canada goose outlet phone number transmission through blood transfusions became rare in the developed world. However, contaminated blood is still a significant source of infection in the developing world.
canada goose factory sale Needle sticks or body fluid splashes among health care professionals. Transmission through theses sources accounts for fewer than 0.3% of all in the United States. The percentage of AIDS cases diagnosed in American women has risen from 7% in 1985 to about 25% in 2006. According to the CDC, in 2006 approximately 278,400 women in the United States were living with HIV/AIDS. The rate was highest among black women and lowest among white women. About 75% of these women contracted HIV through high risk heterosexual activity; almost all of the remainder acquired the infection through needle sharing. canada goose factory sale
The prevalence of women with HIV in the United States is low compared to the rate in many countries in the developing world. Worldwide about half the people living with HIV are women. According to the United Nations, in 2005 about 59% of women living in sub Saharan Africa are infected with HIV. However, prenatal drug treatment of HIV positive mothers in developed countries has reduced the number of children born infected with HIV. In the developing world, drug treatment is either not available or not affordable. According to the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) worldwide 2.3 million children under age 13 were living with HIV in 2006. The previous year, about 380,000 children died of AIDS and more than half a million children were newly canada goose jacket uk womens infected. UNICEF estimates that at least 15 million children have lost at least one parent to AIDS.
Canada Goose Coats On Sale AIDS is the leading causes of death in children under age five many parts of Africa cheap canada goose and Southeast Asia. The interval between exposure to HIV and the development of AIDS is shorter in children than in adults. Infants infected with HIV have a high chance of developing AIDS within one year and dying before age three. In the remainder, AIDS progresses more slowly; the average child patient survives to about seven years of age. HIV attacks the body through three disease processes: immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and nervous system dysfunction. Canada Goose Coats On Sale
buy canada goose jacket cheap Immunodeficiency describes the condition in which the body immune response is damaged, weakened, or is not functioning properly. In AIDS, immunodeficiency results from the way that the virus binds to a protein called CD4, which is primarily found on the surface of certain subtypes of white blood cells. After the virus has attached to the cell CD4 receptor, the virus CD4 complex refolds to uncover another receptor called a chemokine receptor that helps mediate entry of the virus into the cell. One chemokine receptor in particular, CCR5, has been the focus of recent research after studies showed that defects in its structure (caused by genetic mutations) result in a slowing or stopping of the progression of AIDS. Scientists hope that this discovery will lead to the development of drugs that trigger an artificial mutation of the CCR5 gene or target the CCR5 receptor. buy canada goose jacket cheap
uk canada goose Once HIV has entered the cell, it can replicate intracellularly and kill the cell in ways that are still not completely understood. In addition to killing some lymphocytes directly, the AIDS virus disrupts the functioning of the remaining immune system cells. Because the immune system cells are destroyed, a wide variety of infections and cancers can take advantage of a person weakened immune system (opportunistic infections/diseases). uk canada goose
cheap canada goose uk The course of AIDS generally progresses through three stages, although not all patients will follow this progression precisely:Acute retroviral syndrome cheap canada goose uk
Acute retroviral syndrome describes a group of symptoms that can resemble mononucleosis and canada goose outlet los angeles that may be the first sign of HIV infection in 50 70% of all patients and 45 90% of women. Most patients are not recognized as HIV canada goose factory sale positive during this phase and may not seek medical attention. The symptoms are similar to those of many other diseases and may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, loss of appetite, digestive disturbances, weight loss, skin rashes, headache, and chronically swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Some patients will experience a form of meningitis during this phase in which the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. Acute retroviral syndrome develops between one and six weeks after infection and lasts for two to three weeks. During latency, the virus continues to replicate in the lymph nodes, where it may cause one or more of the following conditions:Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL)
canada goose clearance sale Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, or PGL, is a condition in which HIV continues to produce chronic, painless swellings in the lymph nodes during the latent period. The lymph nodes that are most frequently affected by PGL are those in the areas of the neck, jaw, groin, and armpits. HIV also may cause a combination of food malabsorption, loss of appetite, and increased metabolism that contribute to AIDS wasting syndrome. organ systems canada goose clearance sale
At any time during the course of HIV infection, patients may develop a yeast infection in the mouth called thrush, open sores or ulcers, or other infections of the mouth; diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms that cause malnutrition and weight loss; diseases of the lungs and kidneys; and degeneration of the nerve fibers in the arms and legs. Doctors monitor the number and proportion of CD4+ lymphocytes in the patient blood in order to assess the progression of the disease and the effectiveness of different medications. About 10% of infected individuals never progress to this overt stage of the disease.
Once the patient canada goose clearance CD4+ lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/mm 3, he or she is at risk for a variety of opportunistic infections. The infectious organisms may include the following:.